Aerial shot of Heusden, the Netherlands in winter. Photo by redditor Brulbeer.
Wiki: “At the beginning of the Eighty Years' War (1568-1648), Heusden was occupied by the Spanish. In 1577, however, following the Pacification of Ghent, the people of Heusden allied with William, Prince of Orange. William consolidated the town's strategic position near the river Meuse, and ordered fortification works to be constructed. Work started in 1579 with the digging of moats and the construction of bastions, walls, and ravelins, and was completed in 1597.”
“By the early nineteenth century, the defence works fell into disrepair and were dismantled. In 1968, however, extensive restoration works started, and fortifications were carefully rebuilt, based on and inspired by a 1649 map of the city of Heusden by Johannes Blaeu, son of the famous Dutch cartographer Willem Blaeu. In 1980, the city of Heusden received the European Urbes Nostrae restoration prize. Heusden currently draws over 350 thousand tourists every year who visit the historic town centre and walk the walls that once made it a formidable stronghold.”
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Grazie a tutti coloro che sono intervenuti ieri sera! Le relazioni dell'ing. arch. Zanon e del dott. De Cristofaro sono state a dir poco interessanti, ricche di spunti e, soprattutto, di alta qualità! Complimenti per i vostri lavori e "ad maiora"! Prossimo appuntamento... 15 marzo 2019 😉 #istitutoitalianocastellionlus#unitn#research#fortifications
16016 February, 2019
Twierdza Przemyśl (The fortress of Przemyśl) / Fort pancerny IX "Brunner" (1892-1896). Pozostałości lewej kaponiery. (Przemyśl, Ujkowice, Polska)
"The frequent result, said Austerlitz, of resorting to measures of fortification marked in general by a tendency towards paranoid elaboration was that you drew attention to your weakest point, practically inviting the enemy to attack it, not to mention the fact that as architectural plans for fortifications became increasingly complex, the time it took to build them increased as well, and with it the probability that as soon as they were finished, if not before, they would have been overtaken by further developments, both in artillery and in strategic planning, which took account of the growing realization that everything was decided in movement, not in a state of rest".
W.G. Sebald, "Austerlitz", 2001, translated by Anthea Bell. New York: Random House, 2001.
“È perciò accaduto più volte che, proprio mentre si intraprendevano opere di fortificazione, fondamentalmente segnate, disse Austerlitz, da una tendenza allo sviluppo paranoide, si sia lasciato scoperto un punto decisivo, spalancando così le porte al nemico, per non parlare poi del fatto che, con la crescente complessità dei progetti, andava altresì aumentando il tempo di attuazione e quindi la probabilità che, a lavoro appena concluso, se non addirittura prima, le fortificazioni risultassero già superate per via dei nuovi sviluppi prodottisi nell’artiglieria e nei programmi strategici, sempre più consapevoli del fatto che tutto si decide nel movimento e non nella stasi.”
W.G. Sebald, "Austerlitz", 2001, trad. di Ada Vigliani, Adelphi, 2002.